More Light on English Charters

April 16, 2020 in Manuscript Studies, Uncategorized

2 More English Charters
“English Charters 1–2”

6 Richard II (19 September 1382)
10 Henry VII (7 December 1494)

[Published on 16 April 2020]

Having completed the round of posts about a set of charters pertaining mostly to Preston in Suffolk, England, we turn to 2 more English charters in that private collection, as now revealed to our view.

Group of 8 Preston Charters: Front. Photograph Mildred Budny.

Group of 8 Preston Charters: Front. Photograph Mildred Budny.

The first round considered the group in stages, pair by pair:

(Remember, Charter 8 is missing.)

Now we turn to a new pair:  Charters 1 and 2 in the same set.

These documents have the owner’s numbers 1 and 2 entered on their dorse in black ink, at top left.  The numbers on the “Preston” group as we considered them show their placement clearly.

Private Collection, Preston Charters: Dorse with Guide. Photograph Mildred Budny.

Preston Charters: Dorse with Guide. Photograph Mildred Budny.

For Charters 1 & 2, the first purchased among the collector’s English charters, we can at present show you their face, not dorse. These 2 were purchased as single items.

Charter 1

6 Richard II (= 22 June 1382 – 21 June 1383)
“On the Feast of Saint Michael Archangel” = 19 September
19 September 1382

From Juliana X [Name to be deciphered], Wife of John of Saint Andrew, Miles (“Soldier”)

To Thomas Merdeleye of Sutton and others

Charter 6 Richard II Face.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Face.

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), who reigned from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Among his Regnal Years, Year 6 spanned spanned 22 June 1382 – 21 June 1383.

London, British Library, Royal MS 14 E IV, folio 10 recto. "Recueil des croniques" by Jean de Wavrin. Coronation of Richard II at the age of 10 in 1377.

London, British Library, Royal MS 14 E IV, folio 10 recto. “Recueil des croniques” by Jean de Wavrin. Coronation of Richard II at the age of 10 in 1377.

The document specifies the date of the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel — namely 19 September.  Within the span of this king’s regnal years, crossing from one June to the next, that feast fell in the first calendar year.

Damage to the document by liquid, smears, folds, and holes imposes strategic impediments to deciphering some of the names.  Examples include the surname or appelation of the vendor

Ego Juliana ???  uxor Johannis de sancto Andrea milities

“Juliana [???], wife of John of Saint Andrew, miles” (line 1 and again line 6, both times disrupted after her first name)

and the names of some buyers and witnesses.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Face top center.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Face top center.

Image enhancement by the owner improves the legibility.  For example, viewing with Black Light reveals more of the text through the water damage.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter Face with black-lighting of water damage.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter Face with black-lighting of water damage.

Similar for other portions of the water-damage, lower down on the document.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter black-lighting of water damage midway down.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter with black-lighting of water damage.

Docketing

Another method

, Back-lighting, reveals more of the docketing inscription on the dorse.  That inscription, for what it is worth, had the benefit of viewing the text before the water damage, which affected the docketing as well.

Charter 1: 6 Richard 11. Docketing Inscription under back-lighting.

Charter 1: f 6 Richard 11. Docketing Inscription under back-lighting.

All the same, the inscription exhibits some variations from the text of the document.

A Deede from Julian [sic] . . . wife of John S[. . .] A[.]nd[ . .]/
to Thomas Mo[?]edoley, of Sutton, to John d[. . . ] /
au to John de Bredon capellan [. . . ] /
dated on . . . sct[. . . ] /
[ . . . ]

People

The names might find identifications with persons recorded in other sources — provided, of course, that the dates are correct and the identifications are secure.  For example, records survive for

More work to do.  Would you like to join the quest?

And the Seal

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter Seal.

Charter 1: 6 Richard II Charter Seal.

Charter 2

10 Henry VII (22 August 1494 – 21 August 1495)
“Seventh Day of December” = 7 December 1494

From Thomas X
To X
At “Kymbaston”

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face.

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face.

Date and Place

The text closes with its dating clause.

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face, lower left.

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face, lower left.

Apud Kymbaston . . . septimo die mensis decembris anno regni Regis Henrici septimi post conquestum Anglis decimo.

“At Kymbaston . . . on the seventh day of the month of December in the tenth regnal year of King Henry VII after the conquest of the English.”

Henry VII (28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) reigned from 22 August 1485 until his death. Among his Regnal Years, Year 10 spanned 22 August 1494 – 21 August 1495.

So:  7 December 1491, at a place then called Kymbaston.

London, National Portrait Gallery, Portrait painted 29 October 1505. Henry VII wearing the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and holding a rose.

London, National Portrait Gallery, Portrait painted 29 October 1505. Henry VII wearing the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece and holding a rose.

Who, What, Where

The forcible removal of much of the document by excision prevents a clear view of the transaction entire.

The vendor was a Thomas. That much is clear.

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face top left.

Charter 2: 10 Henry VII Face top left.

More research may reveal more about the persons and places.

Do you recognize any of these features, places, and persons?

Please contact us via Contact Us or our Facebook Page. Comments here are welcome too.

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More to Come. See the Contents List for this blog.

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