Seals, Seal-Matrices & Documents

Links of Interest

[First published on our first website on 16 May 2012, with updates]

Seal of Philip I, Count of Savoy, with photography © Mildred Budny

Seal of Philip I, Count of Savoy. Photography © Mildred Budny

Our research interests include medieval (and other) seals, seal-matrices, and documents as well as manuscripts proper.   The integration of our multiple areas of expertise permits us to expect substantial results following the close examination of these materials.

Meanwhile, an example of such a study is reported for a case that is


Here we offer a brief list of links for professional research on documents, seals, seal matrices, sealing practices, and the methods of establishing the authority of texts in transmission.  Also relevant are projects examining the people, places, activities, and intentions mentioned in these sources.

Please Contact Us with suggestions and recommendations.


Bull of Pope Innocent IV in 1244 opened to text. Photography by Mildred Budny

Budny Handlist 18. Photography © Mildred Budny